The turbocharger is designed to increase the overall power and efficiency of the engine. Power to drive the turbocharger is extracted from the energy in the engine exhaust gas.
A turbocharger can be broken down into three basic pieces; a compressor cover, a center housing rotating assembly (CHRA), and a turbine housing.
The compressor cover provides a hose connection for the compressor inlet, and a V-band connection for the compressor outlet. The compressor cover is secured to the compressor side of the CHRA, and encloses the compressor wheel.
The CHRA contains a turbine wheel and shaft assembly, piston ring(s), thrust spacer, compressor wheel, and wheel retaining nut. This rotating assembly is supported on two pressure-lubricated bearings that are retained in the center housing by snap rings. Internal oil passages are drilled in the center housing to provide lubrication to the turbine wheel shaft bearings, thrust washer, thrust collar, and thrust spacer.
The turbine housing is a heat-resistant steel alloy casting that encloses the turbine wheel and provides a flanged engine exhaust gas inlet and an axially located turbocharger exhaust gas outlet. The turbine housing is secured to the turbine end of the center housing.
The Garrett (formerly Airesearch) family of turbochargers look similar. The model TV51 turbocharger is used on all Series 60 diesel engines through the 1989 models. The TV45 turbocharger is used on 1991 and later 11.1 liter displacement diesel engines.